Incidence of COVID-19 and Connections with Air Pollution Exposure : Evidence from the Netherlands

The fast spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in the young woman with face mask using smartphone-GND-iStockemergence of several hot-spots around the world. Several of these are located in areas associated with high levels of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between exposure to particulate matter and COVID-19 incidence in 355 municipalities in the Netherlands. The results show that atmospheric particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 is a highly significant predictor of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and related hospital admissions. The estimates suggest that expected COVID-19 cases increase by nearly 100 percent when pollution concentrations increase by 20 percent.

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